It is a Pump
A water well is an artificial excavation or structure put down by any method such as digging, driving, boring, or drilling for the purposes of withdrawing water from underground aquifers. Pumps played a very important role in the lives of early Americans. Found on almost every farm, ranch and homestead, well water pumps were more then a simple convenience; they were an essential part of life.
The inside of ours looks something like this: Ask our youngest daughter about that! The inside of ours looks something like this:
~~~~~~~~~~~~ History shows that the Greeks and Romans often practiced certain water purification methods, even though they did not know the scientific principles behind their actions. Purification techniques included settling of water, filtering water through sand, and storing water in copper pots. Today, we recognize the scientific basis for each of these purification techniques. From the Greek and Roman periods through the early 1800s, there was relatively little progress made relative to purification techniques, or the design or construction of water work facilities. Much of that period truly was the dark ages.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Aquifer in hydrology, rock layer that contains water and releases it in appreciable amounts. The rock contains water-filled pore spaces, and, when the spaces are connected, the water is able to flow through the matrix of the rock. An aquifer also may be called a water-bearing stratum, lens, or zone.
Some of the properties and principles that come into play in the movement of water into and through aquifers are: capillary action, cohesion and adhesion of water molecules, water pressure, Pascal's principle, and Bernoulli's principle.